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Sunday, November 4, 2018

400G Ethernet, My Observation Notes

I saw a post about Cisco has announced 400G Ethernet switch products.

400G Ethernet means the bit rate can be up to 400 Gbps. Here are some of my observation notes on 400G Ethernet products.

Wednesday, July 25, 2018

Bank lost 1 million US Dollars because of outdated routers

A recent news was about hackers hacked into a Russian bank because of outdated routers. When I saw the keyword “router”, I felt that I must dig further about what really happened.

What I have understood now

The victim is PIR Bank. One of the suspects is MoneyTaker. After the breach, PIR Bank hired company Group-IB to do the clean-ups, recovery, and investigating how the hackers got into their internal network.

Up to this moment, Group-IB disclosed hackers exploited the outdated routers of PIR Bank. The model of the routers was Cisco 800 series routers, which was already declared publicly that the End of Support date would be someday in Year 2016, by Cisco. The running Cisco IOS version was 12.4.

Friday, April 27, 2018

BGP Injection instead of Leak, my observation notes for MyEtherWallet incident

After reading articles by Doug Madory, and by Louis Poinsignon, here are some notes I observed and learned.

[What happened in this incident?]

Hackers somehow made some BGP routers of “eNet” to falsely announce that they own the following 5 IP subnets, which are indeed NOT belonging to “eNet”. The true owner is Amazon. To be more specific, they are for Amazon’s Route 53 DNS name resolution services.


The registered domain server for domain “” is hosted on Amazon Route 53.

Hackers also somehow embedded malicious DNS server (or servers, I really don’t know) also inside service network of “eNet”.

After that, any affected clients’ DNS query for domain “” would hit hacker’s malicious DNS server. Of course, malicious DNS server would respond with false IP addresses, and those false IP addresses are indeed hacker’s own web servers.

At this moment, clients thought they were accessing “”, and they indeed were accessing hacker’s web servers.

Sunday, September 10, 2017

Prepare Python 2.7 on Microsoft Windows using PowerShell

Everyone today talks about the programming language Python while discussing Software-defined Networking (SDN). Since Python is so popular, it would be a good idea for network administrators to know more about Python. First thing first. I talk about how I prepare Python running environment on Microsoft Windows.

It would be nothing special if I only download the installation software from Python official web site by mouse clicking. Instead, I use PowerShell to download and install for me. That is, prepare one scripting running environment using another scripting language.

Here is the recorded video of how I do this.

The version I talk about is version 2.7.13.

Thursday, May 18, 2017

Starting IS-IS routing protocol without CCNP training

The routing protocol Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) is an advanced and robust link-state protocol used in many service provider networks. Most of the other enterprises I know of prefer to use protocols like OSPF or EIGRP instead of IS-IS. Therefore, enterprise administrators might not be familiar to this protocol at all.

Here I want to share my short note to start IS-IS quickly without digging into protocol details. In case you must configure and maintain an IS-IS network, this note might save you some time.

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